FDU-3 Explosion Analysis

Reactor 3 Operating Floor Debris with 540 Millisieverts/Hr

http://ex-skf.blogspot.com/2013/05/fukushima-i-nuke-plant-reactor-3.html...
http://ex-skf.blogspot.com/search/label/Reactor%20No.3
http://ex-skf.blogspot.com/

Saturday, May 4, 2013 - email notice to the media: #Fukushima I Nuke Plant: Reactor 3 Operating Floor Debris with 540 Millisieverts/Hr Radiation

TEPCO happened on a piece of debris cleared from the Reactor 3 operating floor as it was being loaded on the special remote-controlled truck that carries highly radioactive debris. The piece was emitting 540 millisieverts/hour radiation. At 1:45PM today [May 4], access was restricted around the truck that was carrying the debris. There is no effect on the workers or the debris removal work. There is no significant change in the monitoring post measurements.

Update: In the most recent notice on the debris, about 30 minutes ago, The high radiation debris that was in the remote-controlled truck has been moved to the temporary storage areas for highly radioactive debris, which is located on the south side of the Reactor 3 building. Within 5 days or so, using the remote-controlled truck for the high radiation debris, we will move it to the Solid Waste Storage on the north side of the Anti-Seismic Building. We will pay attention to radiation exposure when we move the debris.

----------------------

Moving the highly radioactive debris from one temporary storage to another. Then what? No end-state envisioned. Has TEPCO been mapping the debris as they remove from the Reactor 3 operating floor, and recording the radioactivity of each pieces? Probably not. I wish they did. It might have given some clues on the explosion - how it happened, or what kind of explosion it was.

Posted by arevamirpal::laprimavera at 2:21 AM 15 comments Labels: Reactor No.3

Yes!!

YES - you PATHETIC MORON. I believe my eyes because I know that there are opaque walls between that surface hole in the exterior skin of the building and where the containment and reactor are. I know that I wouldn't be able to see the containment and reactor vessel looking in from the hole because I know there are opaque walls between me and the containment and reactor vessel.

Therefore, I don't expect to see the containment and vessel and I don't. I'm looking into a darkened room.

But TTFN is so MANIFESTLY STUPID that he doesn't understand that there are opaque walls in the interior of the reactor building. This DUMBO "thinks" ( term used advisedly ) that the interior of the reactor building looks like the cutaway diagram.

This BLITHERING IDIOT doesn't understand why it's called a cutaway diagram.

It just shows my friends on other forums just how MANIFESTLY STUPID the anti-nukes are.

TTFN; I think your attendant needs to change your diaper.

Of NO CONSEQUENCE

It is of absolutely ZERO consequence what the Rude Dog: 'sees', 'thinks', 'believes', 'writes', 'blogs' 'proves' and/or disparages. (terms used VERY loosely)

The Rude Dog is in a public policy discussion, somewhat like Italy has been long characterized:

Enemy: 1 division to defeat
Neutral: 2 divisions to watch
Ally: 4 divisions to support

It is therefore generally most expedient to have the Rude Dog playing for the other team.

TTFN

Manifest STUPIDITY from the IDIOT!!

The forum's resident IDIOT asks where the FDU-3 reactor and containment vessel have gone; as if he has proved they are missing.

The short answer is that the reactor and containment have gone nowhere, and are sitting right where they've always been sitting for the past 40+ years.

DUMBO "thinks" (term used advisedly) that the reactor and containment are somehow "missing" on the basis of dark areas on an exterior photo. When asked what he expected to see in another thread, DUMBO produced the following reply:

http://www.nuc.berkeley.edu/node/4504#comment-28823

DUMBO expects to see the "inverted lightbulb" of the containment that contains the reactor vessel as shown in the construction photo he refers to in the middle link of the post. The BLITHERING IDIOT doesn't realize that they built a building around that structure.

Let's take a simple example. If you use a knife to scrape away the outer skin of an avocado, do you see the pit? NO! You see the "meat" of the avocado. The pit is still inside; you just can't see it because the "meat" of the avocado surrounds it.

If you are in a helicopter, and you look into the window of a high-rise office building; do you expect to see the elevator shafts. Probably not. The floor plan of the various floors will have opaque walls dividing the floor into offices, and those opaque walls don't allow you to see the elevator shafts at the core of the building.

The IDIOT in the final link of his post referenced above shows an annotated version of the "cutaway" diagram of the GE Mark I containment building.

The forum's IDIOT is so UNBELIEVABLY STUPID that he doesn't understand a "cutaway" diagram. In a "cutaway" diagram, the artist "cuts away" a bunch of the structure so that we can see deeper into the object; hence the name "cutaway" diagram.

Evidently DUMBO "thinks" ( term used advisedly ) that the reactor building is that box-shaped exterior shell surrounding a big void in which the "inverted lightbulb" of the containment sits in a standalone fashion.

I've been in a GE Mark I reactor building like Fukushima; namely Boston Edison's Pilgrim Nuclear Power Plant in Plymouth, Massachusetts. There's a whole building with opaque concrete walls dividing the space into various compartments that hold the equipment of the plant; like the pumps, and the diesel generators ( unlike Fukushima where the DGs were in the basement, Pilgrim has them high up in the building )... If one were to remove a portion of the exterior wall of the Pilgrim reactor building, one would NOT see the reactor containment, but a room with opaque concrete walls filled with equipment.

To all those of you from other forums to whom I referred you to this response; you've asked me why I've said that anti-nukes are GROSSLY STUPID Well, here you have a demonstration of that STUPIDITY. The anti-nuke here doesn't have the brainpower to understand a simple cutaway diagram He "thinks" ( term used again advisedly ) that if you have a hole in the exterior shell of a building; that allows one to see all the way to the deepest recesses as depicted in a "cutaway" diagram of the building.

Who would have believed that we have people so MANIFESTLY STUPID so that they can't even comprehend the meaning of a simple cutaway diagram; but here we have the evidence of same.

I guess we do have people who are that STUPID. I concede that there are people so STUPID that they have to be institutionalized and cared for by others as they sit in their own urine and excrement because they don't have the where-with-all to attend to their own personal hygiene. The anti-nuke is just marginally better.

Special Olympics

Check that spectacle prescription Rude Dog,

Most of the kids at the Special Olympics can spot a HOLE in the ground.

TEPCO released the salvage photo series.

The whole kit & kabootle is GONE.

There is a HOLE in the ground where the Containment Vessel Shell belongs.

Careful thatcha don't fall in!

TTFN

Errata:

The proper last sentence above should read:

It is better to keep quiet and let the whole world think you to be the fool; than to open your mouth and remove all doubt.

2 ERRORS

There appear to be two (2) GLARING errors in this UM HPS publication, as evidenced by the absence of FDU-3. These errors are the entirety of Statements 1st & 2nd.

http://www.umich.edu/~radinfo/introduction/needtoknow/lstpart3-7.htm

RADIATION AND THE PRODUCTION OF ENERGY

Health Physics Society, The University of Michigan

“First of all, no nuclear power reactor can explode like a nuclear bomb; it is physically impossible.”

“Secondly, all nuclear power plants in the US are in extremely secure sealed containers. These are designed to prevent any radioactive debris, resulting from some kind of operating accident, escaping into the environment.”

TTFN

Evaporated into thin air

The FDU-3 Nuclear Reactor & Metal Containment Shell EVAPORATED into thin air.

The REINFORCED CONCRETE CONTAINMENT is NOWHERE to be seen, or more exactly not identifiable in the FDU-3 Rubble.

The EVIDENCE, in the form of a THERMAL FOOTPRINT suggests a nuclear singularity on the ORDER of 10 Ton Equivalent. This is a projected YIELD on the ORDER of the Davy Crockett 'recoiless rifle'.

TTFN

IDIOT trumpeting STUPIDITY as always.

The above statement from the forum's resident MORON claims that the following statement quoted from the University of Michigan website is in error:

“First of all, no nuclear power reactor can explode like a nuclear bomb; it is physically impossible.”

The resident MORON who has been FAKING technical competence is INCORRECT. The statement from the University of Michigan is ABSOLUTELY CORRECT

The PUTRID PEABRAIN doesn't have the intellectual capability to understand the following; but it is presented here for all those followers of this forum who, unlike DUMBO have an IQ that surpasses that of a grapefruit.

University of California - Berkeley Professor of Physics, Prof. Richard Muller teaches a course called "Physics 10" which is the Physics course for non-Physics majors. He calls his course, "Physics for Future Presidents" and wrote a text by the same name. Courtesy of Google, we can read a portion of the text dealing with the question about whether nuclear reactors can explode in the devastating manner of an atomic bomb. The answer is NO:

http://books.google.com/books?id=ynStlj6R1lIC&pg=PA158&lpg=PA158#v=onepa...

Here is a key fact for future presidents: a nuclear reactor can not explode like an atomic bomb. The public image is not correct. The reason I can confidently make this statement has nothing to do with control; it is based on indisputable physics. No expert disagrees

Did you get that, DUMBBELL? It's there in black and white; no expert disagrees. Say it 100 times until it sinks into that worthless mass of tissue between your ears. No expert disagrees. No expert disagrees No expert disagrees...

Professor Muller continues:

There are other dangers from nuclear power reactors, but exploding like an atomic bomb is not one of them....

The physics reason for the safety of nuclear power reactors is the fact that the presence of lots of Uranium-238 in the core means the nuclear reaction will stop if the neutrons are not moderated. I repeat: unless the neutrons are slowed down, they will be absorbed on the Uranium-238 and the reaction will cease.

Can a nuclear reaction runaway with moderated neutrons. Yes; in fact that is what happened in the Chernobyl accident... But with moderated neutrons, the energy is severely limited because the explosion breaks up the reactor before much energy can be released. Basically the explosion outruns the neutrons. That does not happen in a nuclear bomb because the bomb uses pure Uranium-235, so the chain reaction can proceed using fast neutrons.

As Prof. Muller states, there is too little U-235 and too much U-238 in a reactor to make a nuclear bomb. I've been telling the LITTLE MORON for some time now that the fuel in a reactor is too dilute in U-235. I've backed up that statement with statements and scholarly papers from the nuclear weapons labs, like Lawrence Livermore, and their scientists. But does the MORON catch on? NOPE.

Professor Muller goes on to say that a Chernobyl-like explosion with energies of a few tons of TNT is possible. However, the multi-kiloton and mult-megaton explosions; which are thousands to millions of times greater; can only be accomplished in nuclear weapons specifically designed to develop such yields. The yields of nuclear weapons are just flat out beyond the capability of a nuclear reactor.

The assertions of the forum's resident IDIOT contradict what Professor Muller and I have been saying. So who does one believe?

Does one believe the University of Michigan Health Physics Society, and University of California - Berkeley's own Physics Professor, Richard Muller?

Or do you believe the forum's resident CHOWDERHEAD.

Look at the DUMB CHOWDERHEAD's track record. The MORON claims that he's an engineer and knows advanced mathematics. However, DUMBO disproved that for us himself while commenting that a mathematical equation had a factor of "dt". The "dt" in question was part of the symbol for the derivative, a mathematical operation in differential calculus. The fact that DUMBO didn't recognize a symbol that anyone who has studied differential calculus would know; is proof that he's been LYING and FAKING his mathematical credentials. Although DUMMY claims that I and others don't know our mathematics; those are just EMPTY assertions. DUMBO hasn't shown any credible mathematical skills save for what one would get in junior high.

Recently, DUMBO didn't recognize that a child's swing, thus being a pendulum, is a resonant system. He dismissed a direct quote from the Physics Dept website at Georgia State University saying that a pendulum was a resonant system. No; DUMMY "thinks" ( term used advisedly ) that resonance means that an object destroys itself.

The BONEHEAD also claimed that Deuterium-Oxide or "Heavy Water" was radioactive; in spite of the online data-set from Brookhaven National Laboratory which shows deuterium to be stable, and not radioactive.

The BONEHEAD also attempted to tell me that the thermal radiative emissions from an object just because it is hot; that the energies of the emitted photons were not correlated. If an object is hot enough to radiate X-rays, then it doesn't have to radiate photons of lower energy. A real scientist would know about the "Planck" Spectrum; which correlates the energies of the various photons emitted by a hot object.

So there we have it. The University of Michigan, the University of California - Berkeley, Professor Richard Muller, Brookhaven National Lab, Lawrence Livermore National Lab, and numerous other scientists and scientific institutions; have said the forum's resident IDIOT is 100% WRONG.

So it's pretty clear who is correct and who is wrong.

Why does the BONEHEAD say such things. The reason is readily apparent. The DIMBULB is your typical anti-nuke. They are so damn self-righteous that they believe only they are so holy as to tell the truth. All these scientists and scientific institutions are "greedy liars" as far as the self-righteous anti-nuke is concerned.

DUMBO isn't schooled in the scientific and technical realm; and doesn't have the raw brainpower required to understand even if he were offered the opportunity to study. He's learned nothing on this forum; save for how to brag and boast about his own trivial accomplishments; and to belittle the worthwhile efforts of true scientists.

My final remark is directed to those from other forums to whom I've directed you in order to see the vacuous rantings of the typical anti-nuke.

The self-righteous delusions and arrogance of the anti-nukes know no bounds.

Go RD

U tall um RDm all us boyz hair at the taylor park thank yer purdy smart, and we thank people shud worry less about nucer power and worry mor about the reel bad thangs like UFO's, vapor trails, bigfoot, illuminatti and liberals. Thank U RD 4 beein so smart.

Pre-Algebra

Rude Dog is Howling @ the Moon

The Rude Dog should enroll in a pre-algebra class somewhere and leave the Engineering, Math and Physics to educated and experienced members of the trade.

TTFN

Sales Pitch

The FDU-3 explosion negates this rather widely broadcast misconception about nuclear power plants. The misrepresentation can be traced to the IAEA international nuclear lobbying organization, and its price fixing predecessor the Uranium Institute. It is inappropriate for engineering, physics and health organizations to continue to parrot these blatant LOBBIEST misstatements.

IAEA BULLETIN, 4/1988
http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Magazines/Bulletin/Bull304/30402381825.pdf
http://www.nh.gov/safety/divisions/hsem/nuclearpowerplants/npfaqseabrook...

http://www.elibrary.dep.state.pa.us/dsweb/Get/Document-84879/2930-FS-DEP...
http://quizlet.com/7938372/chapter-5-physics-flash-cards/

http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20090112101725AANsnFf
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/Can_a_nuclear_reactor_explode_like_an_atomic_bomb
http://www.ask.com/q/Why-can't-nuclear-power-plants-explode-like-a-nuclear-bomb
http://www.gizmodo.com.au/2011/03/why-a-nuclear-reactor-will-never-becom...

http://www.amazon.com/Safety-Nuclear-Power-International-Advisory/dp/920...

The Safety of Nuclear Power: A Report by the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (Safety (International Atomic Energy)) Product Details - Paperback- Publisher: International Atomic Energy Agency Language: English ISBN-10: 9201001924 ISBN-13: 978-9201001924

FDU-3 Yield

The FDU-3 MOX Explosive yield appears, upon preliminary review, to correspond within an order of magnitude, to the YIELD of the Davy Crockett Sub-kiloton Tac Nuke System. The M65 'Davy Crockett' Recoilless Nuclear Rifle ~ 0.01 kT (10 Tons)

http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a470429.pdf

Project Management of the Davy Crockett Weapon System

In late 1957, the United States Atomic Energy Commission announced that they had successfully developed a light, sub-kiloton yield warhead. The weapon met the initial characteristics proposed for the front-line tactical weapons system.

This watermelon-sized nugget of destruction could be fired from a 4in-wide recoilless rifle and achieve a range of just over a mile. The launchers could be mounted on jeeps or on practical tripod-mounts for the use of infantry, and they were operated by three-man ‘atomic’ squads.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eiM-RzPHyGs
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=khyZI3RK2lE
http://www.fieldandstream.com/blogs/gun-nuts/2011/10/video-m65-davy-croc... http://www.military-history.org/articles/the-davy-crockett-back-to-the-d...
http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2011/11/wacky-worst-nuclear-weapons
http://www.behindbluelines.com/2010/04/19/military-monday-the-davy-crock...
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/newsnight/6037992.stm
http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2010/04/01/the_little_nukes_that_g...

TTFN

MOAB Not Hot enough

MOAB/FOAB temperature signatures are likely FAR to0 low to vaporize 8’ Nuclear Grade Steel.

http://icnnd.org/Documents/New_Weapons_Technology.pdf

The United States and Russia have developed a number of conventional weapons whose effects have been likened to those of smaller tactical nuclear weapons. These include fuel-air explosives or thermobaric bombs which use finely powdered particles and atmospheric oxygen to greatly enhance the blast effects of conventional explosives. The US has also developed a Massive Ordnance Air Blast bomb (MOAB) (colloquially known as the Mother Of All Bombs) using new types of high energy explosives, and designed primarily to destroy deeply buried or hardened targets. The Russians responded with a ‘Father of All Bombs’ which they claim to be more powerful than the MOAB.

TTFN

Russian Suitcase Nukes

Alexei Yablokov - comments on russia's atomic suitcase bombs

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/russia/suitcase/comments.html

Do "backpack" nuclear weapons exist? How powerful are they?

Their power is about one kiloton, possibly less, but a powerful charge. You cannot destroy Moscow or London, but the Kremlin, you can destroy ... Capitol Hill can be wiped out by such a bomb. ...

… And I said to General Sergeyev, after a wide range of topics that we discussed in a session that lasted well over an hour, I asked him specifically, "One, did you build small atomic demolition munitions, as we suspect you did? Two, do you know where they are? And three, have you destroyed them all?" And to me he said, "Yes, we did build them, we are in the process of destroying them, and by the year 2000 we will have destroyed all of our small atomic demolition devices, the so-called nuclear suitcases."

How big are these things?

The typical size would be maybe like a large trunk, or in perhaps like a large suitcase, probably weighing someplace in the neighborhood of 50 to 100 pounds.

What is the scale of damage that a terrorist could do with one of these things?

You're talking about a bomb, a device with a capability of one kiloton of destruction, which is a massive capability that would cause severe destruction of a major inner city area, perhaps causing a multitude of buildings to collapse with the people inside of them. So you'd have a massive loss of life, you'd have massive radioactive contamination and you'd have massive havoc, unlike any that we've prepared for in the past.

Small nuclear warheads

The above poster asks
Do "backpack" nuclear weapons exist? How powerful are they?

The limits to nuclear weapons technology are probably not in the open literature.

However, one can get an idea from looking at some devices we do know exist; the nuclear artillery shells. For example, the 155mm W-82:

http://www.flickr.com/photos/87913776@N00/3644851733/

The W82 was a 155mm artillery shell. It's diameter is 155mm or about 6 inches. The lighted caption below the shell in the above picture identifies the W82 as a 6 inch shell ( 6" in the caption ).

The following wikipedia article gives its length as about 34 inches long. It also gives the yield as about 2 kilotons:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/W82

So a shell that is 6 inches in diameter and 34 inches long would fit in a good sized suitcase. It also delivers a yield of 2 kilotons which would blow a small to medium-sized city to bits; or destroy the heart of a large city.

Quote

Wrong again Rude Dog

The Q/A format was part of the article

TTFN

Fire & UOX Meltdown will NOT vaporize steel

Oxidation and meltdown are not HOT enough; to vaporize nuclear grade steel.

http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/flame-temperatures-gases-d_422.html
http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/adiabatic-flame-temperature-d_996.html
http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/0960159614

Fuel Gas Combustion with Oxygen (°C) Combustion with Air (°C)

Acetylene 3,100 2,400
Hydrogen 2,660 2,045
Methane 2,810 1,957
Propane 2,820 1,980

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2006/mar/26/nuclear.russia

Uranium meltdown temperature - 2,900C

http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/5791423-14Pgn9/5791423.pdf
http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1009/ML100900446.pdf

Zircaloy melting point - 1850°C

Pu Material Complexity

Plutonium Melting Point 639.5° C Boiling Point 3,235.0° C

1st produced in 1940 by Glenn Seaborg, Edwin McMillan, Joseph Kennedy & Arthur Wahl
Seaborg chose "Pu" for the symbol as a joke
The most complex metal
The Physicist's Dream
The Engineer's Nightmare

VERY sensitive to changes in temperature, pressure, or chemistry

Plutonium Dioxide (PuO2) - The ‘MELTING POINT’ is a RANGE, not a number.

(2660°K - 3000°K+)
(2387°C - 2727°C+)
(4328.6°F- 4940.6°F)

http://www.chemicool.com/elements/plutonium.html
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/465304/plutonium-dioxide
http://www.hobart.k12.in.us/ksms/PeriodicTable/plutonium.htm
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1369702110702042

---------------------------

Oh, and ANY differential concentration of plutonium could pose heightened risks.

TTFN

FDU-3 … More energetic than a zircaloy explosion

The FDU-3 Blast Parameters of: Velocity, Force, Power & Energy as well as Temperature appear much more energetic than the Chernobyl explosions. Even an optimal-condition zircaloy explosion appears to fall far far short of the physical forces released in the FDU-3 DETONATION.

http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/5791423-14Pgn9/5791423.pdf Page 20

For mechanically produced powders less than 54 ym in diameter, water or inert gas submerged storage is mandatory. Although water storage greatly diminishes the chance of accidental fire or explosion, several dangers peculiar to water storage must be considered and prevented:

Drying - If the container is overheated and/or ruptured, the liquid may drain out, leaving the contents in the 3 to 15 percent moisture range that causes the most violent fires and explosions. Furthermore, the draining liquid carries in suspension the lightest and most pyrophoric powder. Upon drying, this powder may act as a pyrophoric fuse that may in turn ignite the container contents.

In the event that damp scrap is involved in an external fire, an extremely violent explosion approaching a low order detonation with shock fronts moving at 1,000 to 2,000 m/s is a real probability.

Hotter than Chernobyl

The FDU-3 GE Mark-1 reactor containment architecture provided two (2) layers of added containment over the (uncontained) Chernobyl reactor design. These were the 8” thick Metal Containment Shell and the 8’ thick Containment Vessel. This greater level of blast protection slowed and cooled the Ex-Vessel explosion.

Therefore … The FDU-3 Reactor Explosion, at a glance, clearly achieved higher internal temperatures, pressures and velocities than the Chernobyl Blast. The Ex-Vessel BLAST Effects escaping from the FDU-3 reactor vessel, metal containment shell and containment vessel are grossly comparable, though slightly more energetic, than the Chernobyl Ex-Vessel BLAST Effects; as a first order approximation.

http://gallery.spaceman.ca/main.php?g2_itemId=4130 Owner: Kerry Size: 24 items Date: 02/07/04 - Chernobyl - This is my collection of rare photos I have salvaged from around the web of the Chernobyl reactor core and the immediate accident area.

http://gallery.spaceman.ca/v/interests/chernobyl/rbmk_chornobyl_341.jpg....
rbmk_chornobyl_341 Taken from GlobalSecurity.org - Date: 27/08/04 - Full size: 1005x650

Looking into the debris-filled reactor (look for the inverted lid on the left). The 1000-ton lid is now wedged 4 feet lower than it rested before the explosion.

http://gallery.spaceman.ca/v/interests/chernobyl/UK_CH_012.jpg.html
UK_CH_012 Taken from International Nuclear Safety - Date: 27/08/04 Full size: 750x600

Close-up view of the reactor #4 area shortly after the explosion at Chernobyl. This would have been a dangerous place to be...

http://gallery.spaceman.ca/v/interests/chernobyl/fruin11m.gif.html
fruin11m - Date: 09/06/04 Full size: 640x480

The "Elephant's Foot". Once molten fuel/debris mixture that dripped down through the floors of the exploded RBMK-1000 reactor at Chernobyl. It was so radioactive and solid, they had to use a rifle to chip a piece of it off.

http://gallery.spaceman.ca/v/interests/chernobyl/f421.gif.html
f421 - Date: 13/07/04 Full size: 637x380

In the "steam distributing corridor", pictures translated from russian: 1 - fuel lava (aka FCM), 2 - concrete, 3 - parosbrosnoy valve, 4 - capacitor.

http://gallery.spaceman.ca/v/interests/chernobyl/image003.jpg.html
image003 - Date: 28/07/04 Full size: 404x189

Molten reactor fuel, aka "corium", represents a mixture of mostly uranium dioxide (fuel) and various metals incorporated from containment apparatus. Photo from the VULCANO

Chernobyl Explosive Yield ~ ½ kT

“Chernobyl accident was probably equivalent to a few hundred kilogrammes of TNT”

IAEA BULLETIN, 4/1988

Nuclear power: Questions and answers, An international group of senior nuclear experts examines plant safety

http://www.iaea.org/Publications/Magazines/Bulletin/Bull304/30402381825.pdf

In 1988, the Uranium Institute — a London-based international association of industrial enterprises in the nuclear industry — published a report entitled The Safety of Nuclear Power Plants. * Based on an assessment by an international group of senior nuclear experts from eight countries, the report provides an authoritative explanation for non-specialists of the basic principles of reactor safety, their application, and their implications.** The following questions and answers are selected from that report; they address only some of the subjects that the report itself examines in greater detail.

The mechanical energy developed in the Chernobyl accident was probably equivalent to a few hundred kilogrammes of TNT, compared to tens of thousands of tons of TNT in a small (tactical) A-bomb. The physical destruction was highly local.

http://isbndb.com/d/book/the_safety_of_nuclear_power_plants.html

The safety of nuclear power plants: an assessment by an international group of senior nuclear safety experts

Publisher: London: Uranium Institute, 1988. ISBN: 0946777144 ISBN13: 9780946777143

The FDU-3 Reactor Explosion

FDU-3 holds the Civilian Reactor Temperature Record

The FDU-3 explosion apparently vaporized the 8” thick Nuclear Reactor as well as the 8” thick Containment Vessel Shell. Vaporization of civilian reactor grade steel indicates sustained temperatures in excess of 6,000°F (3,316°C). The reinforced concrete containment plug was apparently NOT vaporized, which sets an upward temperature boundary at the steel/concrete boundary. The FDU-3 Spent Fuel Pool was not vaporized, which also sets an upper temperature boundary condition. The crane and some structural steel rubble was not vaporized or even fully melted, again setting some reproducible boundary conditions.

This steel/concrete temperature boundary can be reasonably characterized as a function of time and distance for the vertical axis directed blast.

The cylindrical geometry of the Toshiba Nuclear Reactor probably optimizes our explosion analysis coordinate system as (R, Θ, Z, t). The FDU-3 explosion variables are: Temperature, Velocity, Acceleration, Force, Momentum, Energy and Impulse. These variables can be fairly characterized and modeled in terms of time and radial distance from the midpoint (center) of the Toshiba Nuclear Reactor. There are two separate time-zero points of interest. The primary (Yellow Flame) deflagration time can be designated t01. The more energetic second detonation time sequence can be designated t02. The 2nd explosion is comprised of far greater energy and power than the primary (triggering) explosion.

Since the various nuclear industry stakeholders have chosen NOT to discuss the FDU-3 explosion parameters, they have left us to our own devices, for a preliminary blast analysis. The force vector of the blast was (typically) vertically directed and round (radial) in shape. Our mathematical model is a steel cigar, inside a steel wine carafe, wrapped in a reinforced concrete koozie. We can, probably simplify that model, without undue distortion, as a first approximation; to a steel beer can, inside a steel soup can; wrapped inside a concrete koozie. The explosion model is mostly contained within a concrete doll house, which is mostly reduced to twisted rubble. We can begin to map out the times and temperatures as a function of our chosen coordinate system.

TTFN

Directional Explosives and Shaped Charges

Conventional Directional Explosives and shaped charges are commonplace.

http://benthamscience.com/open/tomej/articles/V006/18TOMEJ.pdf
http://www.google.com/patents/US4860655
http://cdn.preterhuman.net/texts/terrorism_and_pyrotechnics/explosives/S...
http://www.nps.edu/Academics/Schools/GSEAS/Departments/Physics/Research/...

Nuclear directional explosives appear to be a ‘restricted’ subject, judging from the Google Search results.

Thus, we shall probably limit our discussion of the topic somewhat, primarily to the instant (FDU-3) case.

Nuclear directionality is apparently another ‘embarrassing’ detail of the FDU-3 blast, in addition to the now-apparent self-contradictions inherent in the SALT and non-proliferation agreements.

‘Egg on every face’

TTFN

Directional Explosives

Most explosions are directional in nature. Commonplace examples include firearms, wherein a primer discharges and ignites the main charge for a controlled burn acceleration of a bullet. Landmines and Claymore mines are relatively well known conventional directional military ordinance.

Military Applications with (conventional) Directional Explosives
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qkvgqj52New
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mBB3OS0Ir2U

Civilian (O&G) Applications with Directional Explosives
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yq0AAXlYk3Q
http://www.halliburton.com/ps/default.aspx?navid=423&pageid=184&prodgrpi...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G1goWOa8XaQ

THE CONFESSIONS OF SAINT AUGUSTINE, By Augustine Bishop of Hippo AD 401
Translated by E. B. Pusey (Edward Bouverie)
http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/3296
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/3296/3296-h/3296-h.htm

‘Confession’, Perforating Guns make EXCELLENT Fishing tackle, if they accidentally fall into the water. They are spectacular fence post-hole diggers.

Need to KNOW

It so happens that I was granted access into the atomic weapons inner sanctums over 50 years ago. Certain projects have entailed occasional proximity and participation from time to time. Thus, familiarity with these subjects is longstanding.

We can be ‘buffaloed’; such as when LORAL came traipsing in with a cock&bull story about an international weather station; and proceeded to teach the chicoms how to ‘do’ missile launches. Similarly, one may be socially ‘read-in’ (inappropriately), lacking any ‘need-to-know’ with respect to directional nuclear weapon parameters. Only Deep Space nuclear detonations can be truly spherical. The rest inherently display some directional asymmetry.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RKvvrNrCOnw
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KZoic9vg1fw
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z2sgmMgSUEA
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OkT3I6RDPkw

c'est la vie

Bogus PVT Data

This TEPCO FDU-3 Pressure-Volume-Temperature (PVT) Data is TOTALLY BOGUS. That’s kind of obvious at this point. The PVT Data is BOGUS; because Reactor 3, Metal Containment Vessel Shell and the Reinforced Concrete Containment EXPLODED over 2 years ago.

Some percentage of the FDU-3 MOX FUEL load is scattered across the Northern Hemisphere while the rest has bored its way into the earth. Perhaps we can EVENTUALLY arrive at Sub-Totals for: Japan, Northwest Pacific, North America, Europe, Asia and the Arctic Ocean.

http://ex-skf.blogspot.com/2013/05/fukushima-i-nuke-plant-reactor-3s.html

Monday, May 6, 2013 - #Fukushima I Nuke Plant Reactor 3's Latest Parameters (5/7/2013) and More "Loose Ends" on Reactor 3

When it comes to the plant data, TEPCO remains to be the only game in town, whether you like it or not.

For those of you who are interested in the most recent plant parameters on Reactor 3, the latest data continues to show Reactor 3's Primary Containment Vessel's pressure is more than atmospheric pressure, that they are measuring temperature of the Reactor Pressure Vessel and there is temperature (about 34 degrees Celsius), about 10 degrees Celsius higher than the Reactor 1 RPV. They are spraying water using core spray system, indicating the RPV is there.

From TEPCO's Plant Parameters page (English), latest plant parameters as of May 7, 2013
http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-xdRdbo8grbg/UYiPQfqzfNI/AAAAAAAAFto/l58mXCTMBo...

Containment Failure, fires and Lethal Doses

An IMPORTANT EMAIL (Status Call)

http://pbadupws.nrc.gov/docs/ML1117/ML11175A327.pdf

From: Feintuch, Karl
Sent: Wednesday, March 16, 2011 9:17 AM

To: Pascarelli, Robert J

Subject: Morning status call items

* U1,2,3 have fuel damage
• U1,2,3 have lost secondary containment integrity
* 60 mrem/hr dose at site boundary
* Multiple Z-H fires reported in spent fuel pools
* US to supply Japan with KI doses
* Japan reports 5 persons have received lethal radiation doses

* 11 NRC people now in Japan

NRC FOIA Emails

FDU-3 Fuel scattered across Eastern Japan

Reactor Fuel scattered across Eastern Japan

Plutonium Rocket Fuel Pu-238 (½-life 88/Y) indicates a MASSIVE FDU-3 Reactor Explosion.

http://ajw.asahi.com/article/0311disaster/AJ2011100112896

The survey team collected soil samples within a 100-km radius of the nuclear plant between June 6 and July 8.

The concentrations of different nuclides of strontium and plutonium per square meter were analyzed at 100 locations, including each of the 59 municipalities within an 80-km radius of the plant. Forty-one additional locations within the 20-km no-entry zone were studied.

At six locations lying either within a 30-km radius of the nuclear plant or beyond that radius to the northwest, the proportion of total plutonium consisting of plutonium-238 was much higher than in residual levels left by the nuclear tests, clearly indicating that the contamination was caused by the Fukushima disaster, the ministry said. Plutonium from the latest accident had previously only been detected on the grounds of the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear plant.

Early Speculation, Confusion & Disinformation

The FDU-3 Explosion EVIDENCE has been collected and reviewed. It is time for the US Government to release the catalogued information, in a massive ‘DATA DUMP’.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7naSc81WSqA
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PC50r7VcnE0
http://www.theweek.co.uk/arts-life/7087/video-shows-fukushima-reactor-3-...

Early Speculation, Confusion & Disinformation concerning the FDU-3 DETONATION:

http://ex-skf.blogspot.com/2013/05/fukushima-i-nuke-plant-accident-react...
http://fukushima-diary.com/2011/11/yellow-light-was-seen-when-reactor-3-...
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-12729138
http://www.cnn.com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/03/13/japan.nuclear.reactors/index...
http://mgx.com/blogs/2011/04/30/fukushima-reactor-3-explosion-scattered-...
http://ajw.asahi.com/article/0311disaster/fukushima/AJ201303180005

I have not yet located the video of Gunderson pointing out the reactor/containment lid falling back to earth; following the FDU-3 explosion.

FDU-3 is GONE

The 8" thick Reactor, 8" thick Metal Containment Shell and 8' thick Containment Vessel are GONE. Now the HIGHLY RADIOACTIVE rubble has been cleared away; to reveal a DEEP, DARK HOLE in the ground, in a WELL ILLUMINATED PHOTOGRAPH.

The vaporization temperature, of most steel alloys, is on the order of 6,000°F (3,316°C)

Plasma arc cutters can generate temperatures on the order of 10,000-20,000°C.

“there is the edge of a large round black hole clearly visible underneath the bridge crane”

“it’s not the top of a reactor; – it’s a very deep, empty hole”

http://enenews.com/extremely-radioactive-rubble-reactor-3-be-nuclear-fue...

http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/nu/fukushima-np/handouts/2013/images/handouts_...

JAMES wrote: … Take a look at the large photo on the right hand side of the second powerpoint slide. The one titled Photo taken on April 22, 2013.

Look to the lower left corner of the picture – notice that there is the edge of a large round black hole clearly visible underneath the bridge crane – surprise; surprise;

it’s not a shadow; it’s not the top of a concrete containment plug; it’s not the top of a reactor; – it’s a very deep, empty hole. Nice of them to finally show us. … [end James]

The China Syndrome the USSR FEARED @ Chernobyl

The China Syndrome the USSR FEARED from Chernobyl OCCURRED at FDU-3, and worse. FDU-3 appears to have gone super-critical and dispersed the ENTIRE MOX FUEL load into the Land, Air and Sea as well as the subterranean abyss.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2006/mar/26/nuclear.russia

But on 2 May, the engineers and physicists at Chernobyl made a horrifying discovery: the temperature of the core and the volume of radionuclides rising from it were both increasing. They suspected that the whole helicopter operation had been a terrible mistake: the sheer weight of everything they had dropped on the reactor from the air - including 2,400 tons of lead - had not only caused structural damage but was pressing the hot reactor core against its concrete base. And if the uranium reached meltdown temperature - 2,900C -a single sphere of molten fuel would burn through the concrete foundations of the reactor building, and keep going until it reached the water table. At that moment, there would be another explosion, exponentially more devastating than the first; the three remaining reactors would be destroyed in a nuclear blast that would render Ukraine, Belarus and Russia uninhabitable for decades to come.

'That was the most terrifying thing,' says Veniamin Prianichnikov. 'We were petrified of meltdown, walking around like zombies.'

A plan was devised: to freeze the earth around the reactor with liquid nitrogen, and then build a heat exchanger in the ground beneath it to cool the core and prevent meltdown. Prianichnikov himself was sent in with temperature and radiation probes to discover how long they had before the core burned through the two metres of concrete foundations; meanwhile, miners were summoned from the coalfaces of Donetsk and the subway projects in Kiev to dig tunnels beneath the reactor. The scientists feared that pneumatic drills could disturb the foundations of the reactor, so they worked with hand tools, in conditions where wearing protective clothing was practically impossible, amid extraordinary fields of radioactivity. To freeze the ground, all the liquid nitrogen in the western Soviet Union was sent to Chernobyl: when it didn't arrive quickly enough, director Brukhanov received a late-night telephone call from the minister in charge of the operation. 'Find the nitrogen,' he was told, 'or you'll be shot.'